1.09 BILLION

People in the world today
harbor anti-Semitic attitudes

2014 survey of attitudes toward Jews in over 100 countries around the world

2015 Update in 19 Countries
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About the Survey Methodology

The Anti-Defamation League commissioned First International Resources to research attitudes and opinions toward Jews in over 100 countries around the world. Fieldwork and data collection for this global public opinion project were conducted and coordinated by Anzalone Liszt Grove Research. All interviews were conducted between July 2013 and February 2014.

This study, known as the ADL GLOBAL 100, consists of surveys of the general public in each of the following 101 countries plus the Palestinian Territories in the West Bank & Gaza.

The data is a result of 53,100 total interviews among citizens aged 18 and over, across 101 countries and the West Bank & Gaza. Expected margin of sampling error for the weighted global average is +0.97%, for the countries/territories surveyed with n=500 interviews it is +4.4% and for countries sampled with n=1,000 interviews it is +3.2%. The margin of error is higher for sub-groups within each geography.

Interviews were conducted via landline telephones, mobile phones and face-to-face discussions in 96 languages (including many dialects and pidgin/creole versions).

All respondents were selected at random. Telephone respondents were selected using random-digit dial sampling; face-to-face respondents were selected using geographically stratified, randomly-selected sampling points in each country, and, at the household level using a Kish grid.

Telephone interviewing was only conducted in countries where the combined mobile phone + landline penetration exceeded 90%. In all countries where telephone dialing was conducted, interviews were collected using a combination of landline and mobile phone dialing, in proportion to that particular country's coverage rate for each telephone type.

Within each country, the data was weighted to be reflective of the national population on a number of demographic measures, including age, gender, religion, urban/rural location, ethnicity, and language spoken.

In an overwhelming majority of the countries/territories polled, the samples are fully nationally representative. However, in some countries (China, India, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Laos, Malaysia, Mauritius, Uganda, and Vietnam), due to security concerns or extreme logistical challenges, national coverage was not complete. In those situations, sampling points were selected and the data was weighted to ensure the country's interviews were reflective of the national population on key demographic measures other than geography.

For regional and global averages, the data was weighted so that each country's interviews were represented proportionately to that country's adult population.

The source for population data was the UN Department of Social and Economic Affairs - Population Division.

For the purposes of this study, countries denoted with an asterisk (*) on the following chart are considered to have a "larger" Jewish population and respondents within those countries were asked an additional battery of questions related to the local treatment of Jews. These countries have an estimated Jewish population that is greater than 10,000, or more than 0.1% of the overall population, or constitute a country where ADL has surveyed in the past. Estimates of Jewish population were sourced from: Sergio Della Pergola, World Jewish Population, 2012.

  • Country
  • Fieldwork Dates
  • Sample Type
  • Sample Size
  • Language(s)
  • Sample Geography
  • Algeria
  • 11/18 - 11/28/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Maghrebi Arabic
  • National
  • Argentina*
  • 7/26 - 8/8/2013
  • Phone
  • 505
  • Spanish (Latin America)
  • National
  • Armenia
  • 11/25 - 12/10/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Armenian
  • National
  • Australia*
  • 8/7 - 8/25/2013
  • Phone
  • 502
  • English
  • National
  • Austria*
  • 12/5/2013 - 1/6/2014
  • Phone
  • 504
  • Austrian German
  • National
  • Azerbaijan*
  • 8/12 - 8/31/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Azerbaijani
  • National
  • Bahrain
  • 11/16 - 12/4/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Gulf Arabic
  • National
  • Bangladesh
  • 12/6 - 12/27/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Bengali
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • Belarus*
  • 11/22 - 12/10/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Russian, Belarusian
  • National
  • Belgium*
  • 12/9/2013 - 1/7/2014
  • Phone
  • 508
  • Dutch, French
  • National
  • Bolivia
  • 11/23 - 12/6/2013
  • Phone
  • 502
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 12/13/2013 - 1/7/2014
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian
  • National
  • Botswana
  • 11/28 - 12/8/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • English, Setswana
  • National
  • Brazil*
  • 8/7 - 8/22/2013
  • Phone
  • 535
  • Brazilian Portuguese
  • National
  • Bulgaria
  • 12/12 - 12/18/2013
  • Phone
  • 505
  • Bulgarian
  • National
  • Cameroon
  • 11/27 - 12/14/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Cameroonian Pidgin English, French, Fulfulde, Ewondo
  • National
  • Canada*
  • 7/12 - 7/21/2013
  • Phone
  • 505
  • English, Canadian French
  • National
  • Chile*
  • 8/3 - 8/16/2013
  • Phone
  • 510
  • Spanish (Latin America)
  • National
  • China
  • 7/23 - 8/9/2013
  • Phone & Face-to-Face
  • 1000
  • Chinese
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • Colombia
  • 11/26 - 11/30/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Costa Rica
  • 11/21 - 11/24/2013
  • Phone
  • 514
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Croatia
  • 12/13/2013 - 1/2/2014
  • Phone
  • 511
  • Croatian
  • National
  • Czech Republic
  • 12/12 - 12/20/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Czech
  • National
  • Côte D'Ivoire
  • 12/1 - 12/13/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • French Pidgin
  • National
  • Denmark*
  • 8/8 - 9/12/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Danish
  • National
  • Dominican Republic
  • 11/21 - 11/29/2013
  • Phone
  • 504
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Egypt
  • 8/1 - 8/31/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Egyptian Arabic
  • National
  • Estonia*
  • 12/12 - 12/30/2013
  • Phone
  • 503
  • Estonian, Russian
  • National
  • Finland*
  • 12/4/2013 - 1/8/2014
  • Phone
  • 510
  • Finnish
  • National
  • France*
  • 8/6 - 9/13/2013
  • Phone
  • 505
  • French (France)
  • National
  • Georgia
  • 8/1 - 8/15/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Georgian, Russian
  • National
  • Germany*
  • 8/6 - 9/11/2013
  • Phone
  • 503
  • German
  • National
  • Ghana
  • 8/7 - 8/22/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 509
  • Akan, Asante, Dagaare, Dangme, Dagbani, Ewe, Fanti, Ga, Hausa, Twi
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • Greece
  • 7/24 - 8/12/2013
  • Phone
  • 579
  • Greek
  • National
  • Guatemala
  • 11/21 - 11/28/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Haiti
  • 11/20 - 11/24/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 503
  • Haitian Creole
  • National
  • Hungary*
  • 8/1 -8 /26/2013
  • Phone
  • 501
  • Hungarian
  • National
  • Iceland
  • 12/9/2014 - 1/8/2014
  • Phone
  • 510
  • Icelandic
  • National
  • India
  • 7/26 - 8/5/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 1000
  • Bengali, Hindi, Kannada
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • Indonesia
  • 7/20 - 8/16/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 515
  • Banjar, Indonesian, Basa Jawa, Malay, Palembang, Basa Sunda
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • Iran
  • 7/23 - 8/4/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Farsi
  • National
  • Iraq
  • 7/31 - 8/3/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Gulf Arabic
  • National
  • Ireland*
  • 12/5 - 1/7/2013
  • Phone
  • 510
  • English
  • National
  • Italy*
  • 8/5 - 9/12/2013
  • Phone
  • 505
  • Italian
  • National
  • Jamaica
  • 12/2 - 12/11/2013
  • Phone
  • 504
  • English
  • National
  • Japan
  • 8/2 - 8/12/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Japanese
  • National
  • Jordan
  • 7/24 - 8/14/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Levantine Arabic
  • National
  • Kazakhstan
  • 11/25 - 12/9/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Kazakh, Russian
  • National
  • Kenya
  • 8/3 - 8/18/2013
  • Phone
  • 556
  • Kiswahili
  • National
  • Kuwait
  • 7/24 - 8/14/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Gulf Arabic
  • National
  • Laos
  • 11/19 - 12/12/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Lao, Khmu, Hmong
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • Latvia*
  • 12/13/2013 - 1/4/2014
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Latvian, Russian
  • National
  • Lebanon
  • 7/24 - 8/14/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Levantine Arabic
  • National
  • Libya
  • 11/15 - 12/10/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Maghrebi Arabic
  • National
  • Lithuania*
  • 12/12/2013 - 1/7/2014
  • Phone
  • 503
  • Lithuanian
  • National
  • Malaysia
  • 11/19 - 12/12/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Malay
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • Mauritius
  • 11/20 - 12/16/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Mauritian Creole
  • 96% of national territory (4% living on sparsely-populated islands excluded)
  • Mexico*
  • 7/27 - 8/9/2013
  • Phone
  • 505
  • Spanish (Latin America)
  • National
  • Moldova*
  • 11/2 - 11/24/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 591
  • Moldovan, Russian, Gagauz
  • National
  • Mongolia
  • 11/18 - 12/4/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Mongolian
  • National
  • Montenegro
  • 12/12 - 12/27/2013
  • Phone
  • 503
  • Montenegrin, Serbian
  • National
  • Morocco
  • 7/24 - 8/14/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Maghrebi Arabic
  • National
  • Netherlands*
  • 8/7 - 9/12/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Dutch
  • National
  • New Zealand*
  • 12/5/2013 - 1/6/2014
  • Phone
  • 500
  • English
  • National
  • Nicaragua
  • 11/20 - 11/25/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 518
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Nigeria
  • 8/4 - 8/18/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • English, Yoruba, Ibo
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • Norway*
  • 12/10/2013 - 1/8/2014
  • Phone
  • 501
  • Norwegian
  • National
  • Oman
  • 11/15 - 12/5/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Gulf Arabic
  • National
  • Panama
  • 8/4 - 8/16/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 517
  • Spanish (Latin America)
  • National
  • Paraguay
  • 11/28 - 12/2/2013
  • Phone
  • 502
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Peru
  • 8/1 - 8/7/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Spanish (Latin America)
  • National
  • Philippines
  • 1/5 - 1/15/2014
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Bicol, Filipino, Ilonggo
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • Poland*
  • 8/9 - 9/16/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Polish
  • National
  • Portugal*
  • 12/12 - 12/19/2013
  • Phone
  • 503
  • Portuguese
  • National
  • Qatar
  • 11/15 - 12/1/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Gulf Arabic
  • National
  • Romania
  • 7/26 - 8/7/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 501
  • Romanian
  • National
  • Russia*
  • 7/19 - 7/29/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 502
  • Russian
  • National
  • Saudi Arabia
  • 7/24 - 8/14/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Gulf Arabic
  • National
  • Senegal
  • 8/13 - 8/22/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Senegalese French, Wolof
  • National
  • Serbia
  • 8/8 - 8/12/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 538
  • Serbian
  • National
  • Singapore
  • 11/23 - 12/12/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Malay
  • National
  • Slovenia
  • 8/5 - 9/11/2013
  • Phone
  • 517
  • Slovenian
  • National
  • South Africa*
  • 8/13 - 8/23/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 532
  • Afrikaans, Xhosa, Zulu, Sotho
  • National
  • South Korea
  • 8/1 - 8/7/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Korean
  • National
  • Spain*
  • 8/6 - 9/10/2013
  • Phone
  • 510
  • Spanish (Spain)
  • National
  • Sweden*
  • 8/11 - 9/17/2013
  • Phone
  • 501
  • Swedish
  • National
  • Switzerland*
  • 8/10 - 9/19/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • German, French, Italian
  • National
  • Tanzania
  • 11/29 - 12/16/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Kiswahili
  • National
  • Thailand
  • 8/10 - 8/28/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Thai
  • National
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • 11/26 - 12/3/2013
  • Phone
  • 503
  • English
  • National
  • Tunisia
  • 7/24 - 8/14/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Maghrebi Arabic
  • National
  • Turkey*
  • 7/24 - 7/30/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Turkish
  • National
  • Uganda
  • 11/29 - 12/8/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • English, Luganda, Swahili
  • National, but excluded conflict zones adjacent to the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Ukraine*
  • 7/18 - 7/22/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 510
  • Ukrainian, Russian
  • National
  • United Arab Emirates
  • 11/15 - 12/8/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Gulf Arabic
  • National
  • United Kingdom*
  • 8/9 - 9/17/2013
  • Phone
  • 510
  • English
  • National
  • United States*
  • 2/6 - 2/12/2014
  • Phone
  • 1000
  • English, Spanish
  • National
  • Uruguay*
  • 11/21 - 11/25/2013
  • Phone
  • 506
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Venezuela*
  • 8/3 - 8/12/2013
  • Phone
  • 509
  • Spanish (Latin America)
  • National
  • Vietnam
  • 11/19 - 12/12/2013
  • Face-to-Face
  • 500
  • Vietnamese
  • Urban/rural sample points
  • West Bank and Gaza
  • 11/20 - 11/26/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Levantine Arabic
  • National
  • Yemen
  • 7/24 - 8/13/2013
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Gulf Arabic
  • National

The Anti-Semitism Index

Since 1964, the Anti-Defamation League has conducted a series of public opinion surveys in the United States to measure levels of anti-Semitism. An index comprised of 11 questions was developed by researchers at the University of California to be used in these public opinion surveys to provide an analytical tool for identifying respondents who harbor anti-Semitic attitudes and for measuring general acceptance of various negative Jewish stereotypes.

Now, for the first time, the Anti-Defamation League has begun to employ a modified version of that original index of 11 questions for use in a 100+ country global public opinion survey aimed at gauging levels of anti-Semitic attitudes and adherence to traditional anti-Semitic stereotypes across the world.

Before answering the index questions, survey respondents were read the following statement: "I am now going to read out a series of statements, some of them you may think are true and some of them you may think are false. Please say which ones you think are probably true and which ones you think are probably false."

As with previous public opinion research conducted by ADL in the United States, survey respondents who said at least 6 out of the 11 statements are "probably true" are considered to harbor anti-Semitic attitudes. The Index Score for each country represents the percentage of adults in that specific country who answered "probably true" to a majority of the anti-Semitic stereotypes tested.The following are the eleven statements that constitute the ADL GLOBAL 100 anti-Semitism index:

Jewish Stereotypes

  1. 1

    Jews are more loyal to Israel than to [this country/the countries they live in]*

  2. 2

    Jews have too much power in international financial markets

  3. 3

    Jews have too much control over global affairs

  4. 4

    Jews think they are better than other people

  5. 5

    Jews have too much control over the global media

  6. 6

    Jews are responsible for most of the world's wars

  1. 7

    Jews have too much power in the business world

  2. 8

    Jews don't care what happens to anyone but their own kind

  3. 9

    People hate Jews because of the way Jews behave

  4. 10

    Jews have too much control over the United States government

  5. 11

    Jews still talk too much about what happened to them in the Holocaust

* Respondents living in countries with an estimated Jewish population greater than 10,000, or more than 0.1% of the overall population, or where ADL has surveyed in the past were read the statement "Jews are more loyal to Israel than to this country." Respondents residing elsewhere were read the statement "Jews are more loyal to Israel than to the countries they live in."

Country-specific figures of the number of people who harbor anti-Semitic views are rounded estimates derived from the country's Index Score multiplied by its estimated adult population. These figures are subject to the same margin of sampling error as the country's survey results.

Regional figures of people harboring anti-Semitic views are rounded estimates derived by adding the total number of adults harboring such views within each of the geographies surveyed in a given region. World figures are derived by conducting the same calculation for all countries and territories surveyed. The country totals may not exactly add up to the overall regional and world totals due to the rounding process. These estimates are subject to the same margin of sampling error outlined in this methodology report.

For the Index Score and for the individual index statements, data is broken out by age and gender within countries. Data by religion is also included in countries where more than n=80 interviews were collected among respondents from more than one religious group.

2015 Update

The Anti-Defamation League commissioned First International Resources to update attitudes and opinions toward Jews in 19 countries around the world. Fieldwork and data collection for this public opinion project were conducted and coordinated by Anzalone Liszt Grove Research. All interviews were conducted between March 5 – April 8, 2015.

This data is a result of 10,002 interviews among citizens age 18 and over, across 19 countries. The expected margin of sampling error for the countries surveyed with n=500 interviews is +4.4%, and for countries sampled with n=1000 interviews it is +3.2%. The margin of error is higher for subgroups within each geography.

Interviews were conducted via landline telephones, cellphones, and face-to-face discussions in 16 languages (including many dialects and pidgin/creole versions).

All respondents were selected at random. Telephone respondents were selected using random-digit dial sampling; face-to-face respondents were selected using geographically stratified, randomly selected sampling points in each country, and at the household level using a Kish grid.

Telephone interviewing was conducted only where combined cellphone + landline penetration in the country exceeded 90%. In all countries where telephone dialing was conducted, interviews were collected using a combination of landline and cellphone dialing, in proportion to that country’s coverage rate for each telephone type.

Within each country, the data was weighted to be reflective of the national population on a number of demographic measures, including age, gender, religion, urban/rural location, ethnicity, and language spoken.

In all countries, the samples are fully nationally representative. Averages are weighted based on the adult population of each country to provide proportional representation.

The source for population data was the UN Department of Social and Economic Affairs - Population Division. Please note that population figures cited for 2015 are the same as those cited for 2014 due to the fact that new census figures have not been released.

Questions regarding countries’ native Jewish populations were asked only in countries with >10,000 Jews, where Jews make up >.1% of total national population, or where ADL has surveyed in the past. Estimates of Jewish population were sourced from: Sergio Della Pergola. “World Jewish Population, 2012.” The American Jewish Year Book – 2012.

  • Country
  • Dates of Interviews
  • Sample type
  • Sample Size
  • Language(s)
  • Sample Geography
  • Argentina
  • 3/10 – 3/19/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Belgium
  • 3/21 – 4/1/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Dutch, French
  • National
  • Denmark
  • 3/19 – 3/30/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Danish
  • National
  • France
  • 3/23 – 4/1/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • French
  • National
  • Germany
  • 3/19 – 4/3/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • German
  • National
  • Greece
  • 3/17 – 3/23/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Greek
  • National
  • Hungary
  • 3/23 – 3/26/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Hungarian
  • National
  • Iran
  • 3/22 – 3/28/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Farsi
  • National
  • Italy
  • 3/19 – 3/28/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Italian
  • National
  • Latvia
  • 3/20 – 3/30/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Latvian, Russian
  • National
  • Netherlands
  • 3/19 – 3/28/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Dutch
  • National
  • Poland
  • 3/19 – 3/30/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Polish
  • National
  • Romania
  • 3/16 – 3/19/15
  • Face-to-face
  • 500
  • Romanian
  • National
  • Russia
  • 3/19 – 4/2/15
  • Face-to-face
  • 500
  • Russian
  • National
  • Spain
  • 3-17 – 3/23/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Spanish
  • National
  • Turkey
  • 3/19 – 3/29/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • Turkish
  • National
  • UK
  • 3/19 – 4/2/15
  • Phone
  • 500
  • English
  • National
  • Ukraine
  • 3/17 – 3/23/15
  • Face-to-face
  • 500
  • Ukrainian, Russian
  • National
  • USA
  • 3/5 – 3/12/15
  • Phone
  • 1000
  • English
  • National

Muslim Oversample

In six European countries -- Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom -- an additional n=100 interviews were conducted among the Muslim populations in those nations. Given the immigration laws in these countries, both citizen and non-citizen Muslim respondents were interviewed. It is important to note that in the previous round of polling, only citizens were surveyed in order to avoid covering large populations of itinerant workers in many countries.

Muslim interviews were conducted with random telephone dialing in regions of each country with significant Muslim populations, so these surveys did not capture the small minority of Muslims who live in communities with very few Muslims. Expected margin of sampling error for Muslims in each country is +9.8%. For the combined Western European Muslim sample including all six countries (n=600) the margin of error is +4.0%.

  • Muslim Oversample
  • Dates of Interviews
  • Sample type
  • Sample Size
  • Language(s)
  • Belgium
  • 3/23 – 4/4/15
  • Phone
  • 100
  • Dutch, French, Arabic
  • France
  • 3/23 – 4/3/15
  • Phone
  • 100
  • French, Arabic
  • Germany
  • 3/23 – 3/26/15
  • Phone
  • 100
  • German, Turkish, Arabic
  • Italy
  • 3/25 – 4/8/15
  • Phone
  • 100
  • Italian, Arabic
  • Spain
  • 3/24 – 4/1/15
  • Phone
  • 100
  • Spanish, Arabic
  • UK
  • 3/26 – 4/2/15
  • Phone
  • 100
  • English, Arabic

About ADL

The Anti-Defamation League was founded in 1913 "to stop the defamation of the Jewish people and to secure justice and fair treatment to all." Now America's premier civil rights/human relations agency, ADL fights anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry, defends democratic ideals and protects civil rights for all.

A leader in the development of materials, programs and services, ADL builds bridges of communication, understanding and respect among diverse groups, carrying out its mission through a network of 27 Regional and Satellite Offices in the United States and an office in Israel.

The Anti-Defamation League fights anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry in the U.S. and abroad through information, education, legislation and advocacy. ADL serves as a resource for government, media, law enforcement, educators and the public.

Learn more about ADL's programs and materials to combat anti-Semitism.

All materials are © 2014 Anti-Defamation League.

The ADL and Anti-Defamation League name and related marks and logos are trademarks of the Anti-Defamation League. All rights reserved. Use of this website is subject to ADL's terms of use and privacy policy.